A MANAGING housekeeper should be possessed of thorough executive ability. Necessarily she is well bred and well educated. To her duties she often in our country brings a knowledge of refined housekeeping gained in her own home, a knowledge of life and its conventions, and the tact to direct those serving her which is commonly given alone to those bred in early years to gentle living.


She is, under the mistress, head of the house. She hires and discharges all servants. She sees personally that all work is thoroughly and properly done. She is, with constant kindness in her heart for human frailty, on the watch to detect and correct any wrongdoing on the part of any servant. She should never spy, never go quietly to detect errors. Her approach should always be known. She should gain the good will and affection of those she directs by unfailing good order and kindly interest in each of them. Let her have few rules, but those few most effectively kept. If she has the confidence and respect of those under her, she has their support. The heads of the house must fully indorse her in every detail of her administration.

The housekeeper is sometimes also secretary to the mistress of the house. But at all times she takes entire charge of the house; in fact, is what her name denotes, — a keeper of the house.

She oversees the closing of the town house and the opening of the country house, she sees that all carpets are sent to be cleaned, that all blankets are put away in good order, that heavy curtains are taken down, and the furniture slip-covers put on early in May. She sends lace curtains to the cleaners. She keeps her eyes open for any defects that might damage the property of the householders and reports the need of all repairs to the mistress.

Her day is commonly spent in some such wise as this: She should be up early in the morning and see that all under her charge are at work by seven. She has planned their daily work and must see that her directions are carried out with clocklike regularity. Her first duty is to go through the servants' rooms and see that all beds and windows have been left open by the occupants for sweetening and freshening in the morning air. Her breakfast, which is commonly served about eight, is brought by the second chambermaid and is served in her own sitting room or office. In some large households the children of the family eat at the housekeeper's table, which is served by a footman.

After breakfast the housekeeper goes to the pantry to see what is wanted in the way of supplies — such as brushes, sponges, towels, soap, chamois, and other articles used for cleaning and washing. If glass or china has been broken, it should be reported to her at once. Plenty of towels are needed in the pantry, and those of good quality are cheaper in the end. Fine glass and silver require soft linen. If the towels furnished are too coarse, the men will be driven to use the expensive table napkins for their polishing.

The housekeeper has charge of the linen closet, and sees that the supply is increased when necessary. It is she also in many houses who gives out the daily supply of linen, orders the flowers, and sees that they are properly arranged by the butler. In fact, the housekeeper often gives the butler a helping hand with the flowers, especially when no parlor maid is kept and the butler and second man have charge of the parlors. The housekeeper orders all coal, wood, etc., and in some houses she has entire charge of the wine closet, giving out daily to the butler the wines he requires, and handing to the mistress a weekly list of the contents of the wine closet.

In the evening the housekeeper usually makes up the accounts and goes over the books of the different tradespeople, for she pays all bills and sees that in items and as a whole they are correct.

Mrs. Seely's Manual, with chapters on Domestic Servants, 1902

Duties and Responsibilities

As Second in Command in the House, except in large establishments, where there is a house-steward, the housekeeper must consider herself as the immediate representative of her mistress, and bring to her work all the qualities of honesty, industry, and vigilance which would be expected of her if she were at the head of her own family. Constantly striving to promote the prosperity of the household, she should oversee all that goes on in the house, that every department is thoroughly attended to, and that the servants are comfortable, at the same time that their various duties are properly performed.

Cleanliness, punctuality, and method are essentials in the character of a good housekeeper. Without these qualities, no household can be well managed. Order again, is indispensable; by it we provide that "there should be a place for everything, and everything in its place."


A necessary qualification for a housekeeper is that she should thoroughly understand accounts. She will have to write in her books an accurate account of all sums paid for any and every purpose, the current expenses of the house, tradesmen's bills, wages, and many miscellaneous items. As we have mentioned in the previous chapter, a housekeeper's accounts should be periodically examined and checked by the head of the house. Nothing tends more to the satisfaction of both employer and employed than this arrangement. "Short reckonings make long friends" stands good in this case, as in others.

The housekeeper should make a careful record of every domestic purchase whether bought for cash or not. This record will be found a useful check upon the bills sent in by the various tradesmen, so that any discrepancy can be inquired into and set right. An intelligent housekeeper will by this means be able to judge of the average consumption of each article in the household; and to prevent waste and carelessness.

The following table of expenses, income, or wages, shows what any sum, from £1 to £100 per annum, is, when reckoned per quarter, calendar month, week, or day: --


Although the housekeeper does not generally interfere much in the actual work of the cook, yet it is necessary that she should possess a good knowledge of cookery; for she has to direct the work of others. In some establishments cakes, bread. jams, pickles, etc., are made in the still-room under the housekeeper's superintendence.

Instruction in Cookery.

Happily it is now usual for all voting people to learn something of this art, and it is a valuable accomplishment, no matter to what class they belong, for at some time of their life it is sure to be of use. A great many, too. who do not actually have to cook themselves are glad to have the power of checking the work of their cooks, who without such a check would become domestic tyrants. With servants of this sort a mistress who knows nothing of cooking is powerless. Before the existence of cookery schools instruction could only be obtained at home, from the mother, housekeeper or cook, but now many who desire instruction prefer to avail themselves of the many opportunities offered by the cookery schools and classes. This course has advantages to recommend it; for that a practical teacher, while allowing the pupil considerable freedom of choice, takes care that the lessons comprise dishes which teach the principles of cookery, as well as mere manipulation of the materials. A good teacher also endeavours to inculcate habits ot economy, cleanliness, and tidiness besides the mere details of the science; but it the cook were to teach on the same lines her motive might be misunderstood, and her advice resented. If the pupils would always practise in their own homes the tidiness and cleanliness they are taught in the schools, they would be less ircipiently regarded nuisance by the cook. Novices should make a rule not to use unnecessary utensils, to wait on oneself as much as possible, and to clear away all materials and utensils when they have finished.

The Daily Duties of a Housekeeper

are regulated, in a great measure, by the size of the establishment she superintends. She should rise early, and see her assistants are duly performing their work, and that the preparations for breakfast are progressing satisfactorily. After breakfast, which, in large establishments, she will take in the "housekeeper's room," with the lady's-maid, butler, and valet, served by one of the under-maids, she will, on days set apart for such purposes, carefully examine the household linen, with a view to its being repaired, or further necessary supplies being procured; she will also see that the furniture throughout the house is well rubbed and polished; and attend to all the necessary details of marketing and ordering goods from the tradesmen.

The Housekeeper's Room

is generally made use of by the lady's-maid, butler and valet, who take there their breakfast, tea and supper. The lady's-maid will also use this apartment as a sitting-room, when not engaged with duties which would call her elsewhere. In different establishments, according to their size, means and expenditure of the family, different rules, of course, prevail. For instance, in mansions where great state is maintained, and there is a house-steward, two distinct tables are kept, one in the steward's room for the principal members of the staff, the second in the servants' hall for the other domestics. At the steward's dinner-table, the steward and housekeeper preside; and here, also, may be included the lady's-maid, butler, valet.

After Dinner,

the housekeeper, having seen that her assistants have returned to their various duties, and that the household is in proper working order, will have many important matters claiming her attention. She will, possibly, have to give the finishing touch to some article of confectionery, or be occupied with some of the more elaborate processes of the still-room. There may also be the dessert to arrange, ice-creams to make; and many employments that call for no ordinary degree of care, taste and attention.

The Still-room

was formerly much more common than at present, for in days of "auld lang syne" the still was in constant requisition for the supply of home-made wines, spirits, cordials and syrups, home-made medicines, scents, and other aromatic substances for the toilet, and sweet- flavoured waters for the purposes of cookery. There are some establishments, however, in which distillation is still carried on, and in these the still-room maid has her old duties to perform. In a general way, however, this domestic is immediately concerned with the housekeeper. For the latter she lights the fire, dusts her room, prepares the breakfast table, and waits at the different meals taken in the housekeeper's room. A still-room maid may learn a very great deal of useful knowledge from her intimate connexion with the housekeeper, and if she be active and intelligent, may soon fit herself for a better position in the household.

Evening Occupation.

In the evening, the housekeeper will often busy herself with the necessary preparations for the next day's duties. Numberless small, but still important, arrangements will have to be made so that everything may move smoothly. At times, perhaps, At times, perhaps attenion will have to be paid to the preparation of lump-sugar, spices, candied peel, the stoning of raisins, the washing, cleansing, and drying of currants, etc. The evening, too, is the best time for attending to household and cash accounts, and making memoranda of any articles she may require for her store-room or other departments.

Periodically, at some convenient time for instance, quarterly or half-yearly it is a good plan for the housekeeper to make an inventory of everything she has under her care, and compare this with the lists of a former period; she will then be able to furnish a statement, if necessary, of the articles which, from wear, breakage, loss, or other causes, it has been necessary to replace or replenish.


In concluding these remarks on the duties of the housekeeper, we will briefly refer to the very great responsibility which attaches to her position. Like "Caesar's wife," she should be "above suspicion," and her honesty and sobriety unquestionable; for there are many temptations to which she is exposed. From a physical point of view, a housekeeper should be healthy and strong, and be particularly clean in her person, and her hands, though they may show a slight degree of roughness, from the nature of some of her employments, still should have a nice appearance. In her dealings with the various tradesmen, and her behaviour to the domestics under her, the demeanour and conduct of the housekeeper should never diminish her authority or influence.

Seasons for different kinds of work.

It will be useful for the mistress and housekeeper to know the best seasons for various occupations connected with Household Management; and we, accordinly, subjoin a few hints which we think will prove valuable.

In the winter months, some of the servants have much more to do, in consequence of the necessity there is to attend to the necessary fires.

In the summer, and when the absence of fires gives the domestic more leisure, a little extra work can be easily performed.


is the usual period set apart for house-cleaning, and removing all the dust and dirt which, notwithstanding all precautions, will accumulate during the winter months, from dust, smoke, gas, etc. This season is also well adapted for washing and bleaching linen, etc., as the weather not being then too hot for the exertions necessary in washing counterpanes, blankets, and heavy substances, the work is better and more easily done than in the greater heats of July. Winter curtains should be taken down, and replaced by the summer white ones; and furs and winter clothes also carefully laid by. The former should be shaken and brushed, and then pinned upon paper or linen, with camphor to preserve them from moths. Spring cleaning must include the turning out of all the nooks and corners of drawers, cupboards, lumber-rooms, etc., with a view to getting rid of unnecessary articles, which left there create dirt and harbour mice and other vermin, though only useless encumbrances left where they are, they may be of great value to one's poorer neighbours. Sweeping chimneys, taking up and cleaning carpets, painting and whitewashing the kitchen and offices, papering rooms, when needed, and, generally speaking, giving the house, a bright and new appearance, for the approaching summer, are among the cares of this season. Oranges should now be preserved, and wine made.


will be found the best period for examining and repairing household linen, and for "putting to rights" all those articles which have received a large share of wear and tear during the winter. The old proverb, "A stitch in time saves nine," applies very strongly to the care of such linen articles as table cloths, serviettes, sheets, pillow-slips, etc., a little early and careful attention to which will often prolong their period of usefulness. In June and July, currants, raspberries, strawberries, gooseberries, and other summer fruits should be preserved, and jams and jellies made. Eggs are cheap and plentiful at this season of the year, and the housekeeper should preserve, by one of the several satisfactory methods, a good supply for the winter months, when eggs, though more in demand than ever, are scarce and dear. Many households also find it economical to purchase in June a supply of salt butter in kegs for winter use. In July, too, the making of walnut ketchup should be attended to, as the green walnuts will be approaching perfection for this purpose. Many other pickles may also be made at this season, full directions for which are given in our pages.


fruit of various kinds, as plums, damsons, blackberries, cranberries and many others, should be bottled and preserved, and jams and jellies made. Pickled mushrooms, mushroom and tomato ketchup, pickled cabbage and beetroot, and many such stores should be prepared at this season. The apples and pears for winter use should now be gathered in and stored. These should be frequently looked over, and any fruit showing symptoms of decay removed. Filberts, cob nuts, and walnuts should also be preserved in sand and salt to prevent them from drying up and decaying.

In September and October

it will be necessary to prepare for the cold weather, and get ready the winter clothing for the various members of the family. The white summer curtains will now be carefully put away, the fire-places, grates, and chimneys looked to, and the house put in a thorough state of repair.

In December,

the principal household duty lies in preparing for the creature comforts of those near and dear to us, so as to meet Old Christmas with a happy face, a contented mind, and a full larder. And in stoning plums, washing currants, cutting peel, beating eggs, and mixing a pudding, a housewife is not unworthily greeting the season of good will.

Mrs. Beeton's General Observations on Domestic Servants, 1907