Frederick Richard Lee

(10 June 1798 - 5 June 1879)

Son of Thomas Lee of Barnstaple and brother of Thomas Lee (Jnr.), an architect. Frederick enrolled as a student at the Royal Academy on 16 January 1818, aged nineteen. Although no dated paintings are recorded from this time, by the time of his election as an Associate of the Royal Academy (A.R.A.) on 3 November 1834, at least six dated paintings existed. One of F.R. Lee's paintings from this time is "Bringing in the Stag", (1830, at the Tate Gallery in London).

Lee was elected to full membership of the Royal Academy on 10 February 1838. A further seven paintings have been documented as painted by Lee before this date, again as oils, mainly on canvas. The Tate Gallery has an example from this period of his career in "Sea Coast Sunrise", (1834).

He is known to have produced a further forty dated paintings over the next thirty years. In addition to the dated paintings, fifty undated paintings exist, including Lake in a Park.

Lee had a house at Pilton, near Barnstaple, but being from early life devoted to the sea, he lived a great deal on board his yacht, in which he visited the coasts of France, Spain, and Italy. He exhibited for the last time in 1870, and became an honorary retired academician in the following year. Lee died at Vleesch Bank, Herman station, in the division of Malmsay, South Africa, where some of his family were living, on 5 June 1879.

Lee was a prolific artist, based on the number of oil paintings he is known to have produced, both on canvas and on board. His subject matter choices clearly shared influences with John Constable and other contemporaries. Some of his more notable paintings were done in collaboration with Thomas Sidney Cooper (between 1848 and 1856) and Sir Edwin Landseer, Lee painting the landscape and Cooper and Landseer adding the animals. Landscapes and pastoral scenes form the majority of his painting interest, with some exceptions, for example, "Cover Side", "The Campfire" and "Gypsy Tent".

Scottish scenes figured prominently as subjects for Lee, but he also traveled extensively elsewhere in Britain and the continent: Gillingham Mill, Dorset, North Duffield Bridge, Derbyshire, Swiss Bridge, Lynedock, Fulford Park, Exeter, Benmore looking up Glen Dochart, "Shattered Oak in Bedfordshire", Sleaford, Lincolnshire, "Rock of Gibraltar" and "Pont du Gard" are all examples of this. Lee also spent considerable time at Penshurst, Kent where a number of his paintings originate. His wife Harriet Eves Lee was buried in the churchyard there after her death in 1850.

Lee's life has been documented elsewhere, and the popularity of his painting remains his lasting legacy. Many of his works have brought substantial prices when sold in recent times. He had a long career with over 90 identified paintings to his credit, compared to John Constable with only around 20 paintings. However, some recent information has come to light detailing more than 300 of his paintings, suggesting many still reside in private hands or in the unpublished care of museums or National Trust properties. The Constable influence remained throughout his career and he was apparently not tempted to follow the Turner impressionist style, but remained true to his original interests despite the industrial revolution taking place around him.

Lee's paintings were much in demand during his lifetime, and he was certainly not a poor, struggling artist -- he appears to have been fairly well-off at the end of his career. Perhaps another aspect to his painting style and prolific output could have been financial. He knew his market, and painted subjects in the style he knew would be popular.

In the last 15 years of his life, Lee divided his time between Broadgate House, his yacht, and South Africa, where he owned several farms. Lee retired on 1 December 1871, and died and was buried near Wellington in South Africa on 5 June 1879. Only three photographic portraits of Frederick Richard Lee have survived, and they can be found in the National Portrait Gallery (London).

Paintings by Lee in public collections are:
"Cover Side" 1839, Tate Gallery, Vernon collection
"Penrhyn Castle", Tate Gallery
"The River Ogwen at Cochwillan Mill", 1849, Tate Gallery
"Evening in the Meadows", 1854, Tate Gallery
"A River Scene", 1855
"Norwich Castle Mill on Ogwen River", 1857, de Young Museum, San Francisco
"The Overhanging Trees", 1865, Metropolitan Museum
"Garibaldi's Residence in Caprera", 1865, Barnstaple Museum
"The River Taw", 1868, Royal Academy
"North Devon Railway", 1868, Royal Academy
"Morning in the Meadows", 1869
Lee has at least fifty paintings in public collections in the UK.


    -The painting reproduced 'en.wikipedia' as a public-domain image with permission of the owner, for others to enjoy. The painting was found recently after being unrecognised in a private dwelling for over 70 years. The picture is framed, oil on board, and measures 45 cm x 70 cm and signed "F R Lee RA 1851".
    -Thomas Lee (1756-1836), also son of Thomas Lee of Barnstaple, Devon, was a minor architect, the pupil of William Rhodes; he won a silver medal from the Royal Academy in 1776, but soon afterwards retired from London to his native Barnstaple upon inheriting a modest fortune (A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects, 1600-1840 3rd ed., 1995, s.v., Howard Colvin.
    -Scottish Landscape: Bringing in a Stag (figure and animals by Sir E. Landseer)".
    -Frederick Richard Lee, Sir Edwin Henry Landseer. Tate.
    -"Sea Coast, Sunrise". Frederick Richard Lee. Tate.
    "Lake in a Park". Frederick Richard Lee. Tate.

Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 32., Sidney Lee, by Lionel Henry Cust (1892).
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FREDERICK RICHARD LEE, (1799-1879), painter and royal academician, was born at Barnstaple in Devonshire in 1799. He entered the army early in life, and obtained a commission in the 56th regiment. He served through a campaign in the Netherlands, but from weak health was obliged to leave the army. He had practised painting as an amateur, and now devoted himself to it as a profession. He became a student of the Royal Academy in 1818. He exhibited at the British Institution in 1822, and the following years. His pictures were favourably noticed, and on one occasion he obtained a premium of 50l.

He exhibited for the first time at the Royal Academy in 1824, and was from that time a prolific contributor to both exhibitions, and to others elsewhere. His favourite subject was the scenery of Devonshire, but he also painted Scottish and French landscape. Lee had a house at Pilton, near Barnstaple, but being from early life devoted to the sea, he lived a great deal on board his yacht, in which he visited the coasts of France, Spain, and Italy.

Among interesting pictures of the sea-coast were "The Coast of Cornwall at the Land's End" and "The Bay of Biscay", both exhibited in 1859, some views of Gibraltar, "The Breakwater at Plymouth" (1861), and some views of Caprera, the home of Garibaldi, whom Lee visited in his yacht in 1864. His English landscapes were, however, his most popular works. In some of them the figures or cattle were introduced by his friend Mr. Thomas Sidney Cooper, R.A. For Mr. Wells of Redleaf, Kent, he painted some pictures of dead game, fish, and still life. There are four pictures by him in the National Gallery, two being from the Vernon collection, including "The Cover Side" in which the dogs, figures, and game were inserted by Sir Edwin Landseer. At the South Kensington Museum there are three pictures in oil and two in water-colour by Lee. Lee was elected an associate of the Royal Academy in 1834, and an academician in 1838. He exhibited for the last time in 1870, and became an honorary retired academician in the following year. Lee died at Vleesch Bank, Herman station, in the division of Malmsay, South Africa, where some of his family were living, on 5 June 1879, in his eighty-first year.

Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 32., by Lionel Henry Cust Lee; Ottley's Dictionary of Recent and Living Painters; Art Journal, 1879; Pycroft's Art in Devonshire; Graves's Dictionary of Artists, 1760-1880.]



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