Charles Bentley

(1805/6 - 4 September 1854)

English watercolour painter of coastal and river scenery. Bentley was born in 1805 or 1806, the son of a master-carpenter and builder living in Tottenham Court Road, London. He was sent to work colouring prints for Theodore Fielding to whom he was eventually apprenticed in order to learn aquatinting. Bentley became a lifelong friend of another, rather younger, pupil of Fielding, William Callow. During his apprenticeship he was sent to Paris, probably to assist work on the plates for Excursion sur les Cotes et dans les Ports de Normandie' (Paris, 1823-5), most of which were after watercolours by Richard Bonington.

After the end of his apprenticeship, though earning some money from engraving or designing plates for periodicals, Bentley turned increasingly to painting watercolours. He exhibited four works at the first Exhibition of the New Society of Painters in Water-Colours, (later the Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colours) in 1832, and six the next year. He was then living at 15, Bateman's Buildings, a narrow turning on the south side of Soho Square, where he remained for another six years. In February 1834, Bentley was elected an Associate-Exhibitor of the Old Water-Colour Society (later the Royal Society of Painters in Water-Colours). By 1838, he had moved to 11, Mornington Place, Hampstead Road, where, except for a three-year break (when he lived with William Callow in Charlotte Street) he spent the rest of his life. His exhibits at the Old Water-Colour Society in 1838 included two imaginative compositions: "From the Red Rover", depicting a naval battle, and "From Tom Cringle's Log", which represented a sinking slave-ship. He showed at the British Institution for the first time in 1843, and the next year became a full member of the Old Society. In 1851 he showed at the Society of British Artists.

Bentley painted scenes all over Britain, in Jersey, the north of Ireland, and in Normandy, which he visited several times with Callow between 1836 and 1841. He also exhibited views of Venice, Holland and Düsseldorf, but it is not certain that he actually went to these places, as he is known to have painted works after sketches by other people, such as his paintings of Trebizond and Abydos, shown in 1841 and 1849, based on drawings by Coke Smyth. He also worked up the illustrations for 12 Views in the Interior of Guiana, published by Rudolf Ackermann in 1841, from studies done on an expedition to South America by John Morison.

Bentley was not financially successful: Samuel Redgrave described him as "uncertain in his transactions, and always poor". He died of cholera on 4 September 1854, leaving a widow.

English painter and engraver. The son of a carpenter in Tottenham Court Road, London, he was apprenticed as an engraver to Theodore Henry Adolphus Fielding and while working for him engraved a number of Richard Parkes Bonington's watercolours. These profoundly influenced his own development, and echoes of Bonington and Copley Fielding (Theodore's brother) can be found in most of his works. He became a close friend of William Callow, with whom he made a number of sketching tours to the Normandy coast and Paris. He also travelled throughout the British Isles. Bentley never exhibited at the Royal Academy but showed 209 works at the Old Water-Colour Society between 1834 and 1854, and also at Suffolk Street. He died from cholera at 11 Mornington Place, Hampstead, leaving his possessions to his widow.

Source: div

Charles Bentley: Member of the Old Water-Colour Society, F. Gordon Roe

AT the commencement of last century Tottenham Court Road presented a very different aspect from the busy thoroughfare now linking the Hampstead Road to Oxford Street. There was hardly a building of any architectural pretensions in the vicinity the British Museum was still plain Montague House and such dwellings as there were abutted on all manner of rural backwaters, from the famous Field of the Forty Footsteps to the dismal haunts described by Dickens in the 44th chapter of Barnaby Rudge. There were persons alive in 1832 who recalled a time when the last house in London was the public-house in the corner, by Whitefield's Chapel: itself the most important feature of the highway. With the waxing of the century, however, Tottenham Court Road assumed a new importance. No later than 1838, a gloriously involved sentence in Tallis's London Street Views remarked that the road "which, twenty-five years back, was almost the least business thoroughfare, is now, equal to, and there is as much retail trade done in it, than in any other street in the Metropolis."

It was in this highway, during 1805 or 1806, that the wife of a master-carpenter and builder, called Bentley, gave birth to a son, who received the name of Charles. The latter date is favoured in most reference books; but both Messrs. J. L. Roget and G. E. Hughes possessed sufficient caution to qualify the statement; whereas, Mr. Gilbert R. Redgrave plumped boldly for the year of Trafalgar. In either case, it is interesting to note that the Old Water-Colour Society and its future member were born within two years of each other.

Only the most meagre details of Charles Bentley 's youth are ascertainable, and those are mostly the fruits of reconstruction. It can be conjectured, for instance, that the bursting of Meux's great vat in 1814, and the consequent deluging of Tottenham Court Road and Oxford Street, impressed his boyish imagination. On the other hand, it is certain that, in common with so many other talented painters, he had displayed an early affection for art. Mr. Roget, quoting from the Joseph John Jenkins MSS., cites the testimony of Bentley's mother as to this. He had "shown from his earliest days a taste for drawing," in consequence of which he was placed with Mr. Fielding to colour prints. This was Copley Fielding's brother, Theodore Henry Adolphus (1781-1851), to whom Bentley was eventually apprenticed in order to learn aquatinting. Whilst thus bound, "he went to Paris to do a work Mr. F. had there" probably an "Excursion sur les Cotes et dans les Ports de Normandie"' (Paris, 1823-5). Bentley's name does not occur on any of the plates, most of which are after Bonington, but those of Thales and Newton Smith Fielding are liberally represented, so it is quite possible that he assisted in the production. (Mr. H. M. Cundall states, by the way, in his History of British Water-Colour Painting, published by John Murray, 1894, that Bentley was "articled to Theodore and Thales Fielding.")

About this time, Bentley formed a life-long friendship with William Callow. Born in 1812, Callow commenced print-colouring and aquatinting under Theodore Fielding in 1823, at 26, Newman Street, Oxford Street, where he worked from 8 a.m. till 6 p.m. daily. When Fielding removed to Kentish Town in 1825, Callow "was articled to him as a pupil for eight years for instruction in water-colour drawing and in aquatint engraving. There were two other pupils, Charles Bentley and John Edge, both of whom assisted Callow to master the technical side of his calling. It was Bentley, indeed, who gave him his first painting lesson, and encouraged the growth of his "natural talents."!

These early reminiscences of Callow's are of the utmost importance, not only in determining the period of Bentley's articles, which expired in 1827, but also in proving that painting was already receiving his serious attention. To what extent Bentley prosecuted his study of water-colour technique during the next five years can only be surmised. He did not immediately sever his old connection, however, but supported himself to some degree by engraving or designing plates for periodicals. Roget mentions several, chiefly in works of the William Callow, R.W.S., F.R.G.S. An Autobiography, Edited by H. M. Cundall, I.S.O., F.S.A., 1908.

"Keepsake" order, but the value of the list is vitiated by a confusion of identities. Thus, the name "J. G. Bentley" appearing on certain plates is implied to be an engraver's error. One prefers to see in it, however, the mark of another painter-graver, Joseph Clayton Bentley (1809-1851), whose style was not entirely dissimilar to his namesake's.

With 1832, the misty annals of Charles Bentley's early life begin to be supplanted by indisputable facts. He is discovered as the author of four drawings at the New Society of Painters in Water-Colours' 1st Exhibition; which were followed by six in the succeeding show. He was then installed at 15, Bateman's Buildings, a narrow turning still to be found on the south side of Soho Square, where he remained for another six years. Only two of these were devoted to securing the New Society's approbation, however, since on February 10th, 1834, Bentley was elected an Associate-Exhibitor of the Old Water-Colour Society. His initial contribution to the latter consisted of five drawings; followed by a like number in 1835; three in 1836; and three in 1837. By 1838 he had removed to 11, Mornington Place, Hampstead Road, which, saving for a three-year hiatus, remained his home till the last. Notable amongst his 1838 exhibits were two imaginative compositions: "From the Red Rover" and "From Tom Cringle's Log," respectively representing a naval engagement and a sinking slaver. The long and lurid quotations attached to these in the catalogue are omitted in the list at the end of this memoir.

From 1838 to 1841, Bentley's annual total at the Old Water-Colour Society remained steadily at six items; in 1842 and 1843, it was increased to eight. The catalogues for the last-named year (the first in which he was "hung" at the British Institution), locate him at 20, Charlotte Street, Portland Place, which he shared with Callow until the latter's marriage. January 12th, 1843, witnessed his elevation to full membership of the Old Society, which was duly noted in the 1844 catalogue. He then exhibited ten water-colours; but, in 1845, he reached his record by sending sixteen works, a record only to be repeated in his last year, although those intervening never saw less than a dozen drawings hung at the Society's rooms.

In 1846, Bentley was back at 11, Mornington Place, working hard, and with but eight more years to live. He thrust out a fresh feeler in 1851, by sending to the (Royal) Society of British Artists, but did not contribute more than three works, all told to the Suffolk Street Exhibition. It is sad to find that years of toil never brought a competence to him. "He was uncertain in his transactions, and always poor," wrote Samuel Redgrave in a sentence that could serve as epitaph for all too many men of talent.

"Always poor!" Long after his death, a drawing by Bentley "appeared in one of the public sale-rooms ...attributed to Turner, under whose name it had, I believe, enjoyed a brief span of high-priced honour."

One of the saddest associations in the long history of art is embodied in the constantly recurrent phrase, "always poor." It is awful merely to attempt to realise how many brilliant exponents have been, are, and must be numbered in that category.

Bentley practically died in harness. Having contracted cholera, he expired after a very brief illness on September 4th, 1854. Administration of his effects, which were sworn as not exceeding 300, was granted (20th September, 1854) to his widow, Eliza.

"The prevailing epidemic," said the Art Journal, (1854), "has carried off one of the most valuable of the members of the Old Water-Colour Society, Mr. Charles Bentley, whose pictures of marine subjects were among the most attractive works in the annual exhibitions of that institution. Mr. Bentley, whose age was not more than 48, died after a few hours' illness on the 4th September."

The Athenaeum's obituary (September 9th, 1854) was no less commendatory: "The Old Water-Colour Society has just lost a valuable member in Mr. Charles Bentley and lost him before his time, since the papers announce his age to have been 48. In marine landscapes and other subjects of the kind he may be ranked between Messrs. Copley Fielding and Callow."

The range of Bentley's sketching excursions can be gathered to some extent from the subjects which he painted. He seems to have travelled fairly freely in England; very much less so in Scotland; to have made trips to North and South Wales; and to have had some acquaintance with Jersey and the North of Ireland. The picturesque atmosphere of Normandy made a special appeal to him, which he answered on several occasions.

Thanks to Mr. Cundall's scholarly editorship of Callow's autobiography (to which I have previously alluded), it is possible to date four such visits with exactitude. Bentley, Callow and Edge met together, for the first time since their pupilage in Paris, during the autumn of 1836; and the two former, with Outhwaite, the engraver, visited Rouen and Havre, "making sketches by the way." Other trips to Paris with Callow took place in 1840 and 1841; and the pair also went to St. Malo, Avranches, Caen, Dieppe and Abbeville on the latter occasion.

The drawings of Venice, Holland and Düsseldorf which made spasmodic appearances at the Old Water-Colour Society need not necessarily be accepted as evidence that Bentley had ever travelled so far afield. Such, at any rate, was Mr. Roget's opinion, with which, in the absence of contrary data, I am disposed to agree. It is obvious that Bentley could not afford to ignore the commercial aspect of his profession, and there is ample proof that he sometimes worked up sketches by less skilled hands. The Old Society's exhibitions of 1841 and 1849, contained views in Trebizond and Abydos which were frankly admitted to have been executed after studies by Coke Smyth, Esq.; and yet another example of this bread-winning craft is to be found in a work by Sir R. Schomburgk, "12 Views in the Interior of Guiana." published by subscription in 1841, (Ackermann, Strand). The sketches for these records "of an investigatory Tour of Guiana, under the direction of the London Royal Geographical Society and Her Majesty's Government," were made by Mr. John Morison, who went as draughtsman, but "the artist's finish, the effect of colouring, light and shade, were communicated by Mr. Charles Bentley, whose drawings in water-colours have long been esteemed."

Although Bentley did not visit all the places he utilized as subjects, and was obliged to accept commissions for what can only be regarded as hack-work, his true merit was apparent to others than the brother-brushes who elected him to the "Old Society." Nagler's Kunstler-Lexicon contains one of the first serious appreciations of his work that can be found, and is doubly interesting from the fact that it was written only three years after Bentley's debut as an aquarellist. It describes him as "a leading London water-colour artist, now alive (1835), who serves a special purpose among those Englishmen who practise this form of art. He paints splendid views, which leave nothing to be desired in the tone and strength of the colours. His water-colours are thus greatly sought after by lovers of art, and are only to be found in first-class cabinets." It is to be feared, however, that he got more praise than pence. Samuel Redgrave hints that Bentley was exploited by persons possessing more regard for their own than the artist's pocket. In an artistic profession, recognition and riches are not synonymous.

It is unnecessary to add much to Nagler's criticism quoted above. Bentley's interests were centred in scenes on and off shore, and though he did not entirely confine himself to their portrayal, it is with them that his name is most readily connected by present-day collectors. A keen colour-sense and adroit control over his medium combined to give his style a cachet which holds its own against the work of many better-known contemporaries.

In compiling the present account of Charles Bentley's life, I have had resource to a large number of books in addition to those to which 1 have already acknowledged indebtedness. My principal guide to clues, however, has remained in Mr. Roget's well-known and valuable work, but even here are one or two passages calling for comment. In the first place, we are told that Bentley exhibited nowhere before his election to an associateship of the Old Society. As a matter of fact, he had been represented for the previous two years at the opposition show in Old Bond Street (where it was then situated). So much can be gathered from the text, but it remains to be noted that Mr. Roget's total of works exhibited by Bentley at the Old Water-Colour Society is 197. Mr. Algernon Graves, on the other hand, allows 209, a figure precisely agreeing with my own independent enumeration. The difference is too heavy to be ignored, but may possibly be traced to some "telescoping" of titles. Bentley's titles were not distinguished by diversity, and this detail, aggravated by two misprints corrupting the artist's initial into "S" and "A," may have had some share in promoting confusion.

Although of purely academic interest in themselves, it is necessary to note such objections in the case of one whose genius has failed to preserve his history from forgetfulness.

Works Exhibited in London by Charles Bentley.

(The arrangement of works in each year is dictated solely by convenience, and bears no necessary relation to their comparative importance. Several obvious misprints in the original catalogues are here corrected.)

New Society of Painters in Water- Colours
View in the Highlands
View near Dunkirk
Coast Scene
Near Lichfield

Windmill in Devonshire
St. Michael's Mount, Cornwall
Scene in Derbyshire
Isle of Wight
River Dart, Devon
Near Lichfield

Old Society of Painters in Water-Colours
Scarborough, Yorkshire
Scarborough, Yorkshire Coast Scene
Wreck on the Coast of Skegness, Lincolnshire
Church of Santa Salute, Venice

On the Thames -- Battersea
View from the Promenade, Venice
Skegness, on the Coast of Lincolnshire
View on the Dart

Old Society of Painters in Water-Colours
Dunluce Castle, Loch of Antrim
Near Bonchurch, Isle of Wight
Near Lichfield

The Raft (S. Bentley in catalogue)
On the Coast, Lincolnshire
Kingswear, on the Dart, Devon

Innisfallen Island, Lower Lake, Killarney
Dunluce Castle, County of Antrim
Sligo, Ireland
From the Red Rover
From Tom Cringle's Log
The Lower Lake, Killarney

Garden Scene
Ferry Boat
Off Dieppe (A. Bentley in catalogue)
Wicklow Bay, Ireland
Tenby, South Wales
Tenby Bay, Wales

On the Beach near Dover, looking towards Folkestone
Entrance to Sligo Harbour, Ireland
Santa Salute, from the Piazzetta, Venice
Ferry Boat
Near Penzance, coast of Cornwall
Needles, Isle of Wight

Trebizond, Black Sea; the lower range of the Caucasus -- after a sketch by Coke Smyth, Esq.
Lock Scene
Abydos, Dardanelles -- from a sketch by Coke Smyth, Esq.
Fishing Boats, Wicklow Bay, Ireland
Donegal Bay -- Killybegs Mountains in the distance -- Ireland
Fishing Boats running into Harbour in a stiff breeze

Fecamp Coast, Normandy
Avranches, Normandy
Treport, Coast of Normandy
Pier at Broadstairs, Fishing Boat running in -- Early Morning
Northfleet, on the Thames
Scene near Munthorpe, Lincolnshire
Oyster Women on the Coast at Granville
Hay Barge off the Nore

Brig and Fishing Boats off St. Valery, Coast of Normandy
Treport, Coast of Normandy
Granville, Coast of Normandy
Scene in the Mountains near Tal-y-Bont, Wales
Vale of Llanrwst, from Roe, North Wales
Hay Barges, etc. -- Mouth of the Medway
Pont Hugon (? Pont Wgari), on the River Roe, North Wales
Tenby, South Wales

British Institution
Water-Mill on the Roe, North Wales.

Old Society of Painters in Water-Colours
Spithead -- Seventy-four firing a salute on leaving port
Dutch Boats off the Coast of Holland
On the Thames -- an Indiaman being towed up -- Early Morning
Town and Castle of Dieppe, from the sea
Mont St. Michel, Coast of Normandy -- Early Morning
Portmadoc, North Wales -- Storm clearing off
Dieppe Pier -- Fishing Boats going out
Making Signals for a Pilot off St. Malo
Fishing Boats running into Harbour
Near Burgh, Fens of Lincolnshire

Tremadoc, North Wales
Collier on a Sand-bank, off Leigh, on the Thames
Wreck on the Rocks off Elizabeth Castle, Jersey
East Real, Lincolnshire
Quilleboeuf, on the Seine
An Indiaman lying-to -- Making Signals for a Pilot
Fishing Boats off Leigh, on the Thames
Ballyshannon, Donegal, North of Ireland
Granville -- Coast of Normandy
Salmon Trap, on the River Lledr, Pass of Dolwyddelen, North Wales
Broadstairs an Indiaman in distress: Boat going out to her assistance
Cardigan Bay, North Wales
Near Festiniog, North Wales
Alton, Lincolnshire -- Storm clearing off
Haymaking, Tetford, Lincolnshire
Traeth Mawr -- Range of Mountains, Snowdon, etc., from Tremadoc

British Institution
Dutch Boat, etc., off Ostend

In the Pool, Thames -- Greenwich in the distance
Broadstairs -- Fishing Boats preparing for sea

Old Society of Painters in Water- Colours
Lock Scene, near Boston, Lincolnshire
Wreck on the Rocks, Dunluce Castle, North Ireland
Fishing Boats off Granville, coast of Normandy
Leigh, on the Thames -- Sunset
In the Downs -- Deal in the distance
On the Medway
Pilot Boat -- Folkestone in the distance
Near Penmachno, North Wales
Granville, Coast of Normandy
Dusseldorf, on the Rhine
On the Coast, Southend
Mountain Scene, from Portmadoc, North Wales
Wreck on the Sands, Criccieth Castle, Cardigan Bay

Scene in the Bay of Cardigan -- Criccieth Castle
Fresh Breeze -- off Whitby, Coast of Yorkshire
Fishing Boats off St. Malo
Bay, Donegal, Killybegs Mountains, North of Ireland
Scene in the Downs -- Dover in the distance
Corn Field, near the Pass of Llanberis, North Wales
Ferry Boat -- Storm clearing off
Fishing Boats preparing for Sea
Sea Piece -- Coast of North Wales
On the -- Coast Normandy, near Treport
Tattershall Castle, Lincolnshire -- Evening
On the Coast, near Tremadoc, North Wales
Dover Castle
Elizabeth Castle, Jersey -- Sunset
On the Coast, Southend -- Boat running on shore

Haymaking -- Tattershall Castle, Lincolnshire
Criccieth Castle, Cardigan Bay, North Wales
Edinburgh, from the Sea
Quilleboeuf, looking up the Seine
Landguard Fort, Harwich in the distance
Near Burntisland, Coast of Fifeshire
On the Essex Coast, near Harwich
Harwich, from the River Stour
St. Michael's Mount, Coast of Cornwall
Killybegs Mountains, Donegal Bay
On the Coast of Normandy
Scarborough, from the Sea
An Old Breakwater on the Coast, Essex
Fishing Boats running into Harbour -- Storm coming on
Near Coningsby, Lincolnshire

British Institution
St. Malo, from the Sea -- Fishing Boats

Harwich, from the Stour

Old Society of Painters in Water-Colours
Town and Harbour of Sligo, Ireland
On the River Stour -- Harwich in the distance
Tattershall Castle, Lincolnshire -- Sunset after a Storm
Lower Lake, Killarney, Ireland
Treport, Coast of Normandy
Bantry Bay, Ireland -- Storm clearing off
Mountain Scene, near Sligo, Ireland
Mont St. Michel, Normandy
Kirkcaldy, Coast of Fife
Trebizond -- Distant range of the Caucasus -- after a sketch by Coke Smyth, Esq.
Mountain Scene from Portmadoc, North Wales
Off the Dutch Coast

Men-of-war in the Medway -- Sheerness in the distance
Mountain Scene, on the River Roe, North Wales
Mountain Scene, Snowdon taken from Tremadoc
Vessel on the Rocks -- Scarborough in the distance
Wreck on the Coast of North Wales --Criccieth Castle
Burntisland, Coast of Fifeshire, Scotland
Dunluce Castle, North of Ireland
The Town and Harbour of Sligo, Ireland
Mountain Scene, near Glengariff, Ireland
Fishing Boats running into Harbour
On the Yorkshire Coast, near Scarborough
St. Catherine Rock, near Tenby, South Wales
Fishing Boats off the Coast of Normandy
On the Medway

British Institution
Edinburgh, from Inchkeith Island

On the Medway -- Sheerness in the distance

Society of British Artists
An Indiaman lying-to, making signals for a Pilot, off Dover

Old Society of Painters in Water-Colours
Sunset -- on the Thames, near Limehouse
Tenby, South Wales
Irish Peasants returning from market -- Killybegs Mountains, Coast of Donegal, Ireland
Coast of Cardigan, near Portmadoc, North Wales
Fishing Boats pushing off -- Holy Island, Coast of Northumberland
Fishing Boats running into Harbour
Mont St. Michel, Normandy
Portobello, looking towards Edinburgh
Burntisland. Coast of Fifeshire
Wreck off Bamborough Castle, Coast of Northumberland
Wicklow Bay, Ireland
Fishing Boats off the Coast of Sheerness
Mountain Scene, near Bettws-y-Goed, North Wales
Fishing Boats off St. Valery-en-Gaux, Coast of Normandy
Scarborough Coast, Yorkshire

Mountain Scene, near Roe, North Wales -- Evening
Scene in the Highlands
Caernarvon Castle -- Sunset
South Foreland -- near Dover
Dover, from the Channel
Summer Afternoon, on the Thames, near Erith
Granville, Coast of Normandy
Elizabeth Castle, Jersey -- Sunset after a Storm
Tremadoc, North Wales
Fishing Boats
Scarborough, Coast of Yorkshire
On the Lledr, near Bettws-y-Coed

Society of British Artists
Burntisland, from the Firth of Forth

British Institution
Fish Girls on the Coast of Normandy

Elizabeth Castle, Jersey -- Sunset after a Storm 20 guineas

Old Society of Painters in Water-Colours
Sligo, Ireland
Fishing Boats off Ramsgate
Mountain Scene, near Bettws-y-Coed, North Wales
Dunluce Castle, Ireland -- Sunset after a Storm
On the Coast of Fifeshire, Scotland
Coast Scene, near Harwich
Old Pier at Broadstairs
Mountain Scene, Donegal Bay, Ireland
Elizabeth Castle, Jersey -- Storm clearing off
Mountain Scene, near Portmadoc, North Wales
Fishing Boat, near Southend
Vale of Dolwyddelen, North Wales
Cardigan Bay, North Wales
Sea Piece

Composition -- Evening
Looking up the River from Southend
Tattershall Castle, Lincolnshire -- Sunset after a Storm
The Dogana, Venice
South Foreland -- Dover in the distance
Tintern Abbey
Ballyshannon Bay, Ireland
Wicklow Bay, Ireland
Sea Piece
Hastings, from the Sea
Street Scene -- Verona
Torquay, Devonshire
Bantry Bay, Ireland
Portmadoc, North Wales
Burntisland, Coast of Fifeshire

British Institution
Donegal Bay -- Mist clearing off from the Killybegs Mountains, Ireland. 80 guineas

Society of British Artists
Fishing Boats off Quilleboeuf, Mouth of the Seine

Early English Water- Colour, C. E. Hughes.
A History of Water-Colour Painting in England, Gilbert R. Redgrave, 1892.
A History of the Old Water-Colour Society, John Lewis Roget, 1891, Vol. 2.
William Callow, R.W.S., F.R.G.S. An Autobiography, Edited by H. M. Cundall, I.S.O., F.S.A.
© Walker's Quarterly - No. 3, April, 1921.

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